Sign up in seconds! generic viagra canada | log in feedback | language â–¼ my flashcards browse flashcards new flashcard set blog change language to:  english   deutsch   franã§ais   polski sphingolipidoses this is a subset of lysosomal disorders characterised by sphingolipid deposition study review all quiz! generic viagra canada Bookmark & share save to my flashcards export print sphingolipid (definition) sphingosine linked to fatty acid and a base (r group; various types) ceramide simplest sphingolipid ( r = h ) glycosphingolipid sphingolipid with r = one or more sugar moieties sphingomyelin sphingolipid with r = phosphocholine types of glycosphingolipids (3) cerebrosides (several classes)gangliosides (nana)globosides (nac-galactosamine) types of cerebrosides (subclass of glycosphingolipids) (3) glucocerebrosidesgalactocerebrosidessulfatides (sulfated galactocerebroside) charged sphingolipids (3) (accumulation of each causes cns disease) sulfatidessphingomyelingangliosides all sphingolipidoses are autosomal recessive except: (1) fabry disease; x-linked all sphingolipidoses involve the cns except: (3) fabrygaucher type iniemann-pick b white matter involvement in lipidoses (gross motor delay, upper motor neuron signs) galactocerebroside, (galactosylsphingosine), sulfatide grey matter involvement in lipidoses (seizures, visual involvement) gangliosides, sphingomyelin gm1 (enzyme, gene, substrate) gm1 beta-galactosidase (glb1) (*distinct from galactosylceramide beta-galactosidase in krabbe) ganglioside gm1 gm1 (clinical) classic (i), juvenile (ii), adult (iii) formsgrey matter pattern---(seizures, dd, cherry red spot)dysostosis multiplexhsm, signs of storagetesting: enzyme activity increased urine keratan sulphate(this disease is allelic with morquio b) tay-sachs (enzyme, gene, substrate) hexa (hexosaminidase a, alpha subunit)gm2 tay-sachs (clinical) 1:4000 (ashkenazi) vs 1:400 000classical, juvenile, chronic formsonset 6 months, macrocephaly, myoclonic epilepsy, blindness, cherry-red spot, fatal within 5 yearshexa activity (pseudodeficiency exists)hexa sequencing sandhoff (enzyme, gene, substrate) (hexosaminidases a and b, beta subunit) (hexb)gm2, globosides, oligosaccharides sandhoff (clinical) rareclassic, juvenile, and chronic typessimilar to tay-sachs but:no ethnic predilectionno hepatosplenomegalynormal hexa activity and low total hexosaminidase activity gaucher (enzyme, gene, substrate) glucosylceramide beta-glucosidase (gba)glucosylceramide gaucher (clinical, management) ashkenazi 1:1600 (vs. generic viagra canada 1:80000)type i (childhood): ftt, massive splenomegaly and hypersplenism, bony lesions, perivascular infiltratestype ii (fulminant infantile) death by 2, may present with hydropstype iii (juvenile) mostly swedishenzyme replacementmiglustat (2nd line) farber (enzyme, gene, substrate) acid ceramidase (asah1)ceramide farber (clinical) lipogranulomatosis:ftt, resp infiltrates, fevers, joint swelling, deformity, contractures, weak hoarse cry, delay, cortical atrophy, cherry-red spot, increased csf proteinsubcutaneous nodules (hands,wrists,scalp)ceramide in kidney, liver, white matter fabry (enzyme, gene, substrate) alpha-galactosidase (gla) [x-linked]trihexosylceramide fabry (clinical, management) generally spares cnsonset in adolescencepainful peripheral neuropathy, episodic, with esr and fevervascular skin lesionstrihexosylceramide, digalactosylceramide in lung, liver, kidneycorneal/lens opacitiescardiac variant existsenzyme replacement metachromatic leukodystrophy (enzyme, gene, substrate) arylsulfatase a (arsa)sulfatide, lysosulfatide, lactosylsulfate ceramide metachromatic leukodystrophy (clinical) late-infantile (50-60%):onset age 1-2yo with weakness, clumsiness, slurring, neurological deterioration, loss of mobility, seizuresjuvenile (20-30%):12-14yo with behavioural, cognitive, cerebellar, seizureadult (15-20%): 40+ with behavioral, cognitivearsa activity <10%mutations required (pseudodeficiency) niemann-pick a and b (enzyme, gene, substrate) acid sphingomyelinase (asm)sphingomyelin, bis(monoacylglycero)sphingosine niemann-pick a and b (clinical) 1:20 000 - 1:40 000 (ashkenazi)hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, ftt, resp infections, cherry-red spot, usually no seizures, dd, death by 3-4sea-blue histiocytesenzyme activity, sequencing niemann-pick c1. Biochemical defect2. cheap viagra Lab testing3. generic viagra canada Gene testing abnormal intracellular ldl-chol trafficking(sphingomyelinase activity is normal)filipin stain of skin biopsynpc1 (95%) and npc2 (5%) sequencing ddx of cherry red spot gm2 / tay-sachsgm1metachromatic leukodystrophyniemann-picksialidase deficiency (mucolipidosis i) (nb: the first four disorders are the charged sphingolipidoses) lysosomal storage diseases causing hydrops gaucher iifarbersialidosis iigalactosialidosisb-glucuronidasesialic acid storage krabbe (enzyme, substrate) proper name: galactosylceramide lipidosis galactosylceramide beta-galactosidase galactosylceramidepsychosine krabbe (h+p) 1:50000 (sweden)onset first 6 months, death by age twofeeding difficulty, irritability, feversdd, exaggerated startle, extensor rigidity, spasticitycortical blindness, optic atrophy, deafnesslate hypotonia / areflexialater onset uncommon krabbe (ct, mri, lp, ncs) ct: diminished white matter; increased density of internal capsule, thalamus, basal ganglia (similar to gm1)mri: failure of myelinationdecreased nerve conduction vel. generic viagra cost Lp: csf protein elevated krabbe: patholo. generic viagra online overnight shipping generic viagra canada

 

Grozinger Lab

Our research focuses on the genomic analysis of social behavior in honey bees and other social insect species. We are primarily interesting in understanding the molecular basis and evolution of chemical communication and host-parasite interactions. We are characterizing the molecular, physiological, behavioral, and social factors that regulate these processes.

These studies not only shed light on the molecular pathways underlying behavior, olfaction, immunity, and chemical ecology, but can also serve as the basis for applied research into novel methods for improving honey bee breeding, colony health and management.

This research seamlessly integrates behavioral studies (both in the field and in the lab), physiological assays, chemical ecology, functional genomics, and comparative studies.  It provides an excellent platform for training students in interdisciplinary studies.